Gymnosperms
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जिम्नोस्पर्म्स

डॉ. ओ पी शर्मा

डॉ. शिवानी दीक्षित

प्रकाशक : प्रगति प्रकाशन प्रकाशित वर्ष : 2017
पृष्ठ :358
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विभिन्न भारतीय विश्वविद्यालयों के वनस्पति विज्ञान के पाठ्य क्रमानुसार

विभिन्न भारतीय विश्वविद्यालयों के वनस्पति विज्ञान के पाठ्य क्रमानुसार

विभिन्न भारतीय विश्वविद्यालयों के वनस्पति विज्ञान के पाठ्यक्रमानुसार
As per Syllabus for B.Sc. students of all Universities in India

CONTENTS

1. Introduction ... 1-16
What are gymnosperms? ... 1
General characters ... 2
Vegetative organs in gymnosperms ... 6
Reproductive organs in gymnosperms ... 7
Ovules in gymnosperms ... 9
Pollen grains in gymnosperms ... 10
Pollination and fertilization in gymnosperms ... 11
Embryogeny in gymnosperms ... 12
Affinities of gymnosperms ... 13
Resemblances with pteridophytes ... 14
Differences from pteridophytes ... 14
Resemblances with angiosperms ... 15
Differences from angiosperms ... 15
Life cycle in gymnosperms ... 16
2. Classification ... 17-26
Taxonomic ranks ... 17
Systems of classification ... 17
Some old systems of classification ... 17
Classification proposed by Birbal Sahni (1920) ... 18
Classification proposed by CJ. Chamberlain (1935) ... 18
Classification proposed by CA Amold (1948) ... 19
Classification proposed by M A Johnson (1951) ... 19
Classification proposed by D D Pant (1957) ... 19
Classification proposed by MB Raizada & K.C. Sahini (1960) ... 20
Classification proposed by A Cronquist, A Takhtajan & W. Zimmermann (1966) ... 21
Classification proposed by D N. Bierhorst (1971) ... 21
Classification proposed by Spome (1974) ... 21
Classification proposed by Taylor (1981) ... 22
Classification proposed by Stewart (1983) ... 22
Classification proposed by Sandra Holmes (1986) ... 22
Distinguishing features of different classes & orders ... 23
Classification proposed by Gilford & Foster (1989) ... 26
Classification proposed by Kramer & Green (1990) ... 26
3. Progymnosperms ... 27-33
What are Progymnosperms? ... 27
Classification ... 27
Archaeopteris ... 28
Aneurophyton ... 30
Rellimia ... 30
Tetraxylopteris ... 30
Protopitys ... 31
Phylogenetic consideration of Progymnospermopsida ... 32
4. Pteridospermales - I (Cycadofilicales) ... 34-48
What are Pteridospermales ? ... 34
General Characters ... 35
Classification ... 35
Lyginopteridaceae ... 38
Lyginopteris oldhamia (Calymmatotheca hoeninghausti) ... 38
Heterangium ... 44
Tetrastichia ... 45
Some other genera of Lyginopteridaceae ... 46
Medullosaceae ... 47
Medullosa ... 47
Calamopityaceae ... 48
5. Pteridospermales- II (Cycadofilicales) ... 49-54
Glossopteridaceae ... 49
Peltaspermaceae ... 51
Corystospermaceae ... 52
Caytoniaceae ... 52
Affinities of Pteridospermales ... 53
6. Bennettitales (Cycadeoideales) ... 55-68z
What are Bennettitales or Cycadeoideales? ... 55
Difference between Bennettitales and Cycadales ... 55
Nomenclature, history and distribution ... 56
Distinguishing features ... 56
Classification ... 57
Cycadeoidea (Bennettites) ... 57
Williamsonia ... 62
Williamsoniella ... 65
Affinities and origin of Bennettitales ... 66
7. Pentoxylales ... 69-77
Discovery ... 69
Distinguishing features ... 69
Pentoxylon sahnii ... 70
Nipanioxylon ... 70
Nipaniophyllum ... 71
Carnoconites ... 71
Sahnia nipaniensis ... 71
Affinities and systematic position of Pentoxylates ... 73
8. Cycadales ... 76-121
What are Cycadales ? ... 76
General characters ... 76
Genera of Cycadales ... 77
Classification ... 78
Cycadaceae ... 78
Fossil Cycadaceae ... 85
Economic Importance of Cycadaceae Cycas ... 87
Economic importance of Cycas ... 116
Nilssoniaceae ... 117
Phylogeny of Cycadales ... 118
9. Cordaitales ... 122-131
Distribution ... 122
Distinguishing features ... 122
Classification ... 123
Cordaitaceae ... 123
Poroxylaceae ... 129
Affinities of Cordaitales ... 129
10. Ginkgoales ... 132-152
What are Ginkgoales ? ... 132
General characteristics ... 132
Classification ... 133
Trichopityaceae ... 133
Ginkgoaceae ... 134
Ginkgo ... 134
Economic importance of Ginkgo ... 148
Fossil members of Ginkgoaceae ... 150
Phylogeny of Gingoales ... 151
11. Coniferales ... 153-207
What are Coniferales? ... 153
General Characteristics ... 153
Classification ... 154
Distribution of Coniferales ... 155
Coniferous leaves ... 155
Lebachiaceae ... 158
Voltziaceae ... 160
Palissyaceae ... 160
Pinaceae ... 161
Pinus ... 161
Taxodiaceae ... 189
Taxodium ... 192
Cryptomeria ... 193
Cupressaceae ... 194
Biota ... 195
Podocarpaceae ... 200
Podocarpus ... 201
Cephalotaxaceae ... 203
Cephalotaxus ... 203
Arzucariaceae ... 205
Economic importance of Coniferales ... 206
12. Taxales ... 208-222
Taxonomic position ... 208
General characters ... 208
Difference between Taxales and Coniferales ... 209
Difference between Taxaceae and Cephalotaxaceae ... 209
Taxus ... 210
Some other Taxales ... 221
Palaeotaxus ... 221
Austrotaxus ... 221
Pseudotaxus (Nothotaxus) ... 221
Torreya ... 222
Amentotaxus ... 222
13. Gnetales (Gnetaceae) ... 223-248
Taxonomic arrangements of Gnetales ... 223
General characteristics ... 223
Gnetum ... 224
Relationships of Gnetum ... 245
Gnetum and other gymnosperms ... 245
Gnetum and angiosperms ... 245
Resemblances between Gnetum. Ephedra & Welwitschia ... 246
Differences between Gnetum, Ephedra & Welwitschia ... 247
14. Gnetales (Ephedraceae) ... 249-264
Ephedra ... 249
Ephedra and Gnetum : How much do they differ? ... 263
15. Gnetales (Welwitschiaceae) ... 265-272
Welwitschia ... 265
Differences between Welwitschia and Gnetum ... 271
Resemblances between Welwitschia and Gnetum ... 272
16. Incertae Sedis ... 273-277
Vojnovskyales ... 273
Rhexoxylon ... 274
Nucellangium ... 275
Hydropteridangium ... 276
Czekanowskiales (Czekanowskia) ... 276
17. Distribution Of Gymnosperms ... 278-284
Distribution of gymnosperms in the world 278
Cycadales ... 279
Coniferales ... 279
Taxales ... 281
Ginkgoales ... 281
Gnetales ... 281
Distribution of Gymnosperms in India ... 281
Cycadales ... 281
Gnetales ... 282
Coniferales ... 282
Taxales ... 283
18. Cytology Of Gymnosperms ... 284-288
Cytology of Cycadales ... 284
Cytology of Ginkgoales ... 285
Cytology of Coniferales ... 285
Cytology of Taxales ... 287
Cytology of Gnetales ... 287
19. Forest Biotechnology ... 289-295
Cycadales ... 289
Ginkgoales ... 290
Taxales ... 291
Coniferales ... 291
Pinaceae ... 291
Taxodiaceae ... 293
Cupressaceae ... 293
Podocarpaceae ... 294
Araucariaceae ... 294
Gnetales ... 294
20. Polyembryony In Gymnosperms ... 296-299
What is polyembryony ... 296
Types of polyembryony ... 296
Polyembryony in Cycadales ... 297
Polyembryony in Coniferales ... 298
Polyembryony in Taxales ... 299
Polyembryony in Gnetales ... 299
21. Economic Importance Of Gymnosperms ... 300-306
Cycadales ... 300
Ginkgoales ... 302
Coniferales ... 302
Taxales ... 305
Gnetales ... 306
22. Evolutionary Trends And Origin Of Gymnosperms 307-311
Evolutionary trends ... 307
From which type of earliest gymnosperms developed the modern gymnosperms? ... 310
Origin or phyly of gymnosperms ... 310
Monophyletic origin of gymnosperms ... 310
Diphyletic origin of gymnosperms ... 311
Triphyletic origin of gymnosperms ... 311
23. Origin Of Secondary Wood, Primary Vasculature & Leaf In Gymnosperms ... 312-315
Origin of secondary wood ... 312
Evolution of stele ... 312
Origin of leaf ... 314
24. Twenty Three Comparative Tables of Gymnospermous TAXA ... 316-323
Table 1 Comparative life span of some extinct groups ... 316
Table 2 Difference between gymnosperms and pteridophytes ... 316
Table 3 Difference between gymnosperms and angiosperms ... 316
Table 4 Comparison of habit and anatomy of Lyginopteridaceae, Medullosaceae and Cycadales ... 317
Table 5 Comparison of reproductive structures of Lyginopteridaceae, Medullosaceae and Cycadales ... 318
Table 6 Difference between Bennettitales and Cycadales ... 318
Table 7 Difference between Cycadeoideaceae and Williamsoniaceae ... 318
Table 8 Comparison of male cones of Cycas and Pinus ... 319
Table 9 Comparison of male gametophytes of Cycas and Pinus ... 319
Table 10 Comparison of female gametophytes of Cycas and Pinus ...
Table 11 Difference between ovules of Cycas and Pinus ... 320
Table 12 Comparison of the embryogeny and seed of Cycas and Pinus ... 320
Table 13 Difference between Biota and Thuja ... 320
Table 14 Difference between Taxales and Coniferales ... 320
Table 15 Comparison between Cephalotaxaceae and Taxaceae ... 321
Table 16 Comparison of morphological features of selected genera of Pinaceae ... 321
Table 17 Comparison of morphological features of selected genera of Taxodiaceae ... 321
Table 18 Comparison of morphological features of selected genera of Cupressaceae ... 322
Table 19 Comparison of morphological features of selected genera of Podocarpaceae ... 322
Table 20 Difference between Gnetum and Ephedra ... 322
Table 21 Difference between Welwitschia and Gnetum ... 322
Table 22 Difference between Gnetum, Ephedra and Welwitschia ... 323
Table 23 Distribution of some monotypic genera of living gymnosperms ... 323 25. Introductory Palaeobotany ... 324-330
What are palaeontology, palaeobotany and fossils? ... 324
How are fossils formed? ... 325
Types of fossils ... 325
How are fossils studied? ... 327
How are fossils reconstructed and named ... 328
Determination of age of fossils ... 328
Geological time scale ... 329
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 331-338
INDEX 339-344

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