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ए टेक्स्टबुक आफ बायोटेक्नोलॉजी
भारतीय विश्वविद्यालयों के स्नातक व परास्नातक पाठ्यक्रमानुसार
भारतीय विश्वविद्यालयों के स्नातक व परास्नातक पाठ्यक्रमानुसार
भारतीय विश्वविद्यालयों के स्नातक व परास्नातक पाठ्यक्रमानुसार
For Graduate and Postgraduate Students of All Indian Universities
1. Biotechnology: Scope and Importance ... 3-24
What is biotechnology; History of biotechnology, Traditional biotechnology; Modern biotechnology - emergence of modern biotechnology, biotechnology as an interdisciplinary area, global impact and current excitement of biotechnology (health care agriculture, human genome project, environment, genomics and proteomics, bioinformatics Global impact of biotechnology; Health Care Agriculture Environments; Biotechnology in India and global trends; Global scenario, Potential of modern biotechnology International for genetic engineering and biotechnology (ICGEB), Need the future development; Achievements of biotechnology Ban on genetic food, Prevention of misuse of biotechnology Biodiversity and its conservation genetic diversity, species diversity, ecosystem diversity; Biodiversity in India; Conservation of biodiversity Gene bank and plant conservation.
2. Genes : Nature. Concept and Synthesis .. 27-51
Chemical nature of DNA; Chemical composition; Nucleotides nucleosides; Polynucleotides; Changan's rule of equivalence Physical nature of DNA; Watson and Chicks model of DNA; Circular and super helical DNA; Organisation of DNA in eukaryotes; Structure of RNA; Gene concepts Units of a gene, Citron; Recon; Mutan; Split genes, RNA splicing; Ribozyme; Evolution of split genes; Overlapping the Gene organisation, Gene expression; Gene regulation Transcription; The lac operon (structural gene, operator gene, promoter gene and repressor gene); Artificial synthesis gene, Synthesis of a gene for yeast alanine RNA; Synthesis of a gene for bacterial tyrosine RNA, Synthesis of a human leukocyte interferon gene; Gene synthesis by using mRNA, Gene machine; The PCR; Amplification of DNA (melting of target DNA, annealing of primers, primer extension); Application of PCR technology (diagnosis of pathogens, prenatal diagnosis, DNA fingerprinting, in research, molecular archaeology, diagnosis of plant pathogens).
3. Tools of Genetic Engineering - I: Basie Requirements ... 52-70
Gel permeation; Characteristics desired for gel permeation, Application of gel permeation; Ion exchange chromatography (cation exchanger, anions exchanger); Electrophoresis; Agarose gel electrophoresis; Pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE); Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE); Sodium dodecyl polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE); 2D gel electrophoresis (iso-electric focusing); Spectrophotometry, matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation (MALDI), surface enhanced laser desorption ionisation (SELDI), electrospray ionisation (ESI); Spectroscopy, colorimetry, UV-Vis spectrometry, fluorescent spectrometry, Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), working mechanism of PCR (denaturation, annealing, hybridization reverse transcription-mediated PCR (RT-PCR), random amplified polymerase DNA (RAPD marker), arbitrary primed PCR (AP-PCR), DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF), application of PCR.
4. Tools of Genetic Engineering - II: Cutting and Joining of DNA ... 71-84
Exonucleases; Endonucleases; Restriction endonucleases, (Types I, II and III) Nomenclature; Example of some enzymes; SI nucleases DNA ligases; Alkaline phosphatase; Reverse transcriptase; DNA Polymerase; T4 polynucleotide kinase, Terminal Transferase Use of linkers and adaptors.
5. Tools of Genetic Engineering - III: Cloning Vectors ... 85-113
Bacterial plasmid vectors; pBR322, pUC vectors, pACYC184, pUN121. Agrobacterium-based plasmids, Ti-DNA plasmid (mechanism of T-DNA transfer, tumour morphology, gene transfer properties of Ti- and Ri-based plasmids; Bacteriophage vectors, phage 2-insertion vector, replacement vector (EMBL 3, 4 charon 3); phage M13, P phage vector; Cosmids; Phagemid vector, Phagemids-pBlue Script (+/-), pBlue Script IIKS, Yeast plastid vectors, Yeast Integrative plasmid (YEP), Yeast episomal plasmid (YEp). Yeast replication plasmid (YRp), Yeast centromeric plasmid (YCp) or yeast centromere (CEN), Yeast artificial chromosome (YAC); Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC); Plant and animal viruses as vectors, plant viral vectors (CaMV, geminiviruses, tobamoviruses), animal viral vector, Transposons as vectors, Ac-Dc elements, P elements; Shuttle vectors and expression vectors.
6. Techniques of Genetic Engineering (Cloning Methods and DNA Analysis) ... 114-118
Gene cloning in prokaryotes; Strategy of recombinant DNA technology; Gene library, Genomic library, DNA library-isolation of mRNA, reverse transcription, oligo-dC tailing, alkali hydrolysis, addition of oligo-G primer, synthesis of second strand cDNA, Insertion of DNA fragment into vector; Use of restriction Linkers; Use of homopolymer tails, Transfer of recombinant DNA into bacterial cells; Transformation, Transfection Selection (screening) of recombinanats - Direct selection, insertional Selection inactivation method, blue-white selection method. colony hybridization test. Selection of recombinant (transgenic) tissueIn vitro-translation technique; Immunological tests; Blotting Techniques; Southern blotting technique, Northern blotting technique, Western blotting technique (protein blotting or electroblotting technique); Recovery of cells; Expression of cloned DNA; Shine-Dalgarno sequence; Detection of nucleic acids; Radioactive labelling. nick translation, random primed radiolabelling of probes, probes developed by PCR; Nonradioactive labelling- horseradish peroxidase method, digoxigen labelling system, biotin-streptavidin labelling system; Somatotropin; Gene cloning in eukaryotes; Plant cells; Yeasts; Transformation in filamentous fungi (application of transformation of fungal protoplasts), gene transfer in dicots using Agrobacterium Ti DNA as a vector, gene transfer in monocots; Plant cell transformation; Plant cell transformation by ultrasonication, Liposome-mediated gene transfer; Animal cell; Electroporation; Particle bombardment (conditions for bombardment; pollen transformation through particle bombardment); Microinjection; Direct transformation DNA (gene) sequencing; Maxam and Gilbert's chemical degradation method - cleaving of purine, Cleavage of pyrimidine, Sanger and Courlson's (dideoxynucleotide chain termination method), automatic DNA sequencer; DNA Sequencing; Site directed mutagenesis; Methods of mutagenesis.
7. Genetic Engineering for Human Welfare ... 149-178
Cloned genes and production of chemicals; Human peptide hormone genes; Insulin; Somatotropin; Somatostatin; B endorphin; Human interferon genes. Genes for Vaccines; Vaccine for hepatitis-B virus, (recombinant Vaccine to Hepatitis-B virus, indigenous hepatitis-B vaccine). Vaccines for Rabies virus; Vaccines for Poliovirus; Vaccine for foot and mouth disease Virus; Vaccines for small pox virus; Malaria Vaccines (expression of vaccine target antigens; animal trials on Malaria vaccine); DNA vaccines; Genes associated with genetic diseases. Phenylketonuria; Urokinase; Thalassemia, Haemophilia; Enzyme engineering; Commercial chemicals; Prevention, diagnosis and cure of diseases. Prevention of diseases; Diagnosis of diseases; Parasitic diseases; Monoclonal antibodies; Antenatal diagnosis; Gene therapy; Types of gene therapy (somatic cell gene therapy, germ-lime gene therapy, enhancement genetic engineering, eugenic engineering; Methods of gene therapy, (virus vectors, non-viral approaches--physical methods and chemical methods); Success of gene therapy; Potential oil gee delivering system; Future needs of gene therapy in India DNA profiling fingerprinting); Methods of DNA profiling Application of DNA profiling, Genetic databank; Reuniting the last dallon; Solving disputed problems of parentage. identity of criminals, rapists, etc., Immigrant dispute; Hurdles of DNA profile; Animal and plant improvement; Abatement of pollution.
8. Genomics and Proteomics ... 181-203
Genomics; Human Genome Project; Methods of gene sequencing; Direct sequencing of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC), random shotgun sequencing, whole genome shotgun sequencing - library construction, random sequencing - alignment and gap closure, proofreading, the expressed sequence tag (EST) approach; Genome prediction, and gene counting, Gene prediction algorithms-homology-based gene prediction. AB mito gene prediction, systemic gene prediction, Accurary and validity of gene prediction algorithms; Genome similarity and SNPS. Genome similarity, Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP); Types of genomics, Structural genomics, Functional genomirs-functional genomics tool bar, determination of function of unknown (computer analysis, experimental analysis), pattern of en expression (gene expression array by measuring level of transcripts, serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE), DNA chip (DNA microarray) technology - application of DNA hos Comparative genomics - examples of comparative genomics databases for comparative genomics (PEDANT, COGS. KEGG, MBGD, WIT); Future of genomics, Proteomics, Relation between gene and protein, Approaches for study of proteomics. Type of proteomics-expression proteomics, structural proteomics, functional proteomics.
9. Bioinformatics ... 201-218
What is bioinformatics?; What is database? - classification of database; Historical background; Sequences and nomenclature, IUPAC symbols, Nomenclature of DNA sequences, Directionality of sequences, Types of sequence uses in bioinformatics genomics DNA, cDNA, organellar DNA, RSTs, gene sequencing tags (GSTs), other biomolecules; Information sources, National centre for biotechnology information (NCBI), the GDP the mouse genome database (MGD), Data retrieval tools - ENTREZ, OMIM, PubMed, Taxonomy browsers, LocusLink, Sequence retrieval system (SRS); Database similarity searching - BLAST, FASTA, Resources for gene level sequences, UniGene database, HomoloGene database, RefSeq database; Use of bioinformatics tools in analysis (processing raw information, genes, proteins, regulatory sequences, phylogenetic relationship, reconstruction of metabolic pathways, prediction of function of unknown genes.
10. Animal Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture ... 221-250
History of animal cell and organ culture; Requirements for animal cell, tissue and organ culture; Characteristics of animal cell growth in culture; Substrates for cell culture; Substrate treatment; Culture media, Natural media; Synthetic media; Sterilization of glassware, equipments and culture media; Equipment required for animal cell culture - laminar air flow, CO, incubators, centrifuges, inverted microscope, culture rooms, data collection (observation), Isolation of animal material (tissue); Disaggregation of tissue (physical and enzymatic methods); Establishment of cell culture (evolution of cell lines, primary cell culture, secondary cell culture), types of cell lines (finite cell lines, continuous cell lines), factors affecting subculture in vitro); Cultivation of animal cell en masse in bioreactor Suspension culture; Methods for scaleup of cell culture process-roller bottle microcarrier beads, spinner culture; Immobilized cell culture; Insect cell culture; Somatic kell culture; Organ culture Organ culture on plasma clots; Organ culture on agar; Organ culture in liquid medium; Whole embryo culture; Valuable products from cell cultures, Tissue plasminogen activator (PA), blood factor VIII, Erythropoietin (EPO); Hybridoma technology; Monoclonal antibodies - application of monoclonal anitbodies-disease diagnosis, disease treatment (therapeutic monoclonal Ab), Passive immunization, detection and purification of biomolecules; Production of commercial products from insect culture.
11. Manipulation of Reproduction and Transgenic Animals ... 251-274
Manipulation of reproduction in animals, Artificial insemination; Semen collection and its storage; Ovulation control; Sperm sexing; Embryo transfer; Multiple ovulation superovulation; Multiple ovulation with embryo transfer; Embryo splitting; Embryo sexing; In vitro fertilization (IVF) technology; Quadriparental hybrid; Nuclear transplantation Dolly; Embryonic stem cells-production of chimeric mouse; In vitro fertilization and embryo Transfer in humans problems related to test tube babies; Infertilities in humans; Male sterility; Female sterility Who benefits IVE; How the patients for IVF treated; Indicators of ovary stimulation; Oocyte recovery and uptake; Sperm preparation and embryo Transfer; Transgenic animals, Strategies to gene transfer; Transfer of animal cells/embryo; Treatment through microinjection, Targeted gene transfer, Knockout mice; Transgenic mammals; Transgenic sheep; Transgenic fish; Animal bioreactor and molecular farming; Application of molecular genetics, Select traits and their breeding into livestock; Diagnosis, elimination and breeding strategies of genetic diseases; Application of molecular genetics in improvement or livestock, Hybridization based markers; PCR based markers; Properties of molecular markers; Application molecular markers; Transgenic breeding strategies; Bioethics in animal genetic engineering.
12. In Vitro Culture Techniques : The Biotechnological Principles ... 277-304
Historical background; Requirements for in vitro Cultures; A tissues culture laboratory; Washing and storage facilities, media preparation room, transfer area; Nutrient media; Inorganic chemicals; Growth hormones; Organic constituents; Vitamins; Amino acids, solidifying agents, pH; Maintenance of aseptic environment - Sterilization of glassware, sterilization of instruments, sterilization of culture room and transfer area, sterilization of nutrient media, sterilization of plant materials; Methods of plant cell, tissue and organ culture-basic steps; Types of cultures of plant materials; Explant culture; Callus formation and its culture; Organogenesis; Root culture; Shoot culture and micro propagation; Cell (suspension) culture, benefits from all cultures, Somatic embryogenesis; Culture of plant materials. Explant culture; Callus formation and its culture; Organogenesis, Root culture; Shoot culture and micro propagation; Cell culture; Benefits from cell culture; Somatic embryo-genesis; Somaclonal variation; Protoplast culture; Isolation; Regeneration; Protoplast fusion and somatic hybridization; Fusion products; Method of somatic hybridization, selection of somatic hybrids and cybrids Anther and pollen culture; Culturing techniques in vitro androgenesis (direct and indirect androgenesis); Mentor pollen technology, Embryo culture; Embryo rescue; Triploid production; Protoplast fusion in fungi-intra and inter specific protoplast fusion .
13. Applications of Plant Cell. Tissues and Organ Cultures ... 308-334
Applications in agricultures, Improvement of hybrids; Production of encapsulated seeds; Production of disease resistant plants Production of stress resistant plants; Transfer of nif genes to eukaryotes Future prospects Applications in horticulture and forestry. Micropropagation; in vitro Establishment of Mycorrhiza Applications in Industry; Transgenic plants; Selectable markers and their use in transformed plants (cat gene, nptll gene, lux gene, lacZ gene); Transgenic plants for crop improvement, virus resistant transgenic plants, Insect resistant transgenic plants; Herbicide resistant transgenic plants; Molecular farming from transgenic plants, nutritional quality (cyclodextrins, vitamin A, quality of seed protein), immunotherapeutic drugs; Immunotherapeutic drugs (edible vaccines, edible antibodies. edible interferon); Bioethics in plant genetic engineering.
14. Molecular Markers of Plant and Animal Genomes ... 337-354
Molecular markers; Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)- preparation of genomic DNA probes, detection of RFLPs uses of RFLPs (indirect selection using quantitative trait loci, indirect selection of monogenic traits with RFLP markers); Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), achievements form RAPD, application of RAPD (preparation of genetic maps, mapping of genetic traits, fingerprinting, tagging of markers); Minisatellile or variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs), microsatellite (SSRs). AP-PCR, Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), Tagged PCR and sequencing; Computer software for construction of linkage maps; Construction of molecular maps in plants; Construction of genetic maps using RFLP loci -- selection of Parental plants. Production of mapping population. Scoring of RFLP in mapping population (screening for polymorphism, Scoring for polymorphism, analysis of linkage); Construction of genetic maps using RAPD and SSRs-QTL mapping in maize (mapping QTL influencing resistance to downy mildews); Physical maps using in situ hybridization (ISH); Construction of molecular maps in animals. Molecular genetic maps in humans; Molecular genetic maps in other animals; Construction of maps using molecular markers - physical maps using YAC and ISH, physical maps using chromosome walking, physical maps using in situ hybridization (SH).
15. Cryopreservation ... 355-362
Cryopreservation of plant stock cells; Difficulties in cryopreservation; Methods for cryopreservation selection of material, addition of cryoprotectors freezing rapid freezing slow freezing, stepwise freezing storage in liquid nitrogen thawving washing and reculturing regeneration of plantlets, Plant cell bank; Pollen bank; Achievements through cryopreservation; Cryopreservation of animal stock cells; Selection of cell line and standardization of culture condition; Stage of cryopreservation, Cell Bank.
16. Features of Biotechnological Importance in Microorganisms ... 365-385
Techniques of microbial culture, Growth media Sources of nutrition; Procedures for microbial cultures Sterilization; Control of environmental conditions for microbial growth; Aeration and mixing; Vessels for microbial culture (haffles flasks, shakers, fermentors); Fermentation; Micro Culture microorganism; Solid or semisolid culture; Types of microbial cultures; Batch culture (microbial growth kinetics and growth rate); Measurement of microbial growth; Methods of measuring microbial growth, wet weight measurement - dry weight measurement, absorbance, total cell count, variable counts, Batch Culture; Continuous culture; Fed-batch culture, Metabolic pathways in microorganism, Glycolysis EMP pathways. The entner-doudoroff pathway; The pentose phosphate pathways; Microbial products; Primary metabolites; Secondary metabolites, Enzymes; Microbial biomass; Scale-up of microbials; Downstream processing; separation of biomass; cell disruption; concentration of both, initial purification of metabolities; metabolite-specific purification (dewatering, polishing of metabolites); Isolation and improvement of microbialstrains; isolation of strains, strain improvement of microorganisms (mutation and mutant selection), recombination, protoplast fusion, recombinant DNA technology.
17. Microbial Products : Primary and Secondary Metabolites ... 386-411
Vitamins; Vitamins B12: Chemical structure: Commercial production; Organic acids; Citric acid; Commercial production: Biochemistry of fermentation; Use of organic acids; Alcohols Microorganism used in alcohol production; Fermentable substrates; Biochemistry of fermentation; Ethanol fermentation by yeasts; Ethanol fermentation by bacteria; Ethanol fermentation methods; Distilleries producing alcohols: Alcoholic beverages Wine; Beer; Rum: Whisky: Sake; Uses of alcohols Amino acids: Production of L-glutamate-metabolic pathways of glutamate production, production strains, commercial production Toxins, Bacterial toxins; Chemical nature; Production of B-exotoxin; Microbial insecticides, Mycotoxins, type, action, control; Antibiotics; Penicillins Selection of culture of penicillium; Chemical nature of penicillins, Fermentation medium; Fermentation process: Antibiotic producting companies
18. Single Cell Protein (SCP) and Mycoprotein ... 412-441
Advantages of producing microbial protein; Microorganisms used as single cell protein (SCP); Substrates for the production SCP; Nutritional values of SCP; Genetic improvements of microbial cells; Production of algal biomass; Factors affecting biomass production; Harvesting the algal biomass: Spirulina as SCP, cultivation and uses. Production of bacterial and actinomycetous biomass. Method of production: Factors affecting biomass production; Product recovery. Production of yeast biomass. Factors affecting growth of yeast; Recovery of yeast biomass. Production of fungal biomass. (Other than Mushrooms). Growth conditions: Organic wastes as substrates. Traditional fungal foods, shoyu, miso. sake, tempeh; Mushroom culture, Historical background; Present status of mushroom culture in India; Nutritional values: Cultivation methods: Obtaining pure culture; Preparation of spawns: Formulation and preparation of composts; Spawning, spawn running and cropping: Control of pathogens and pests; Cultivation of paddy straw mushroom, Cultivation of white button mushroom: Cultivation of Dhingri (Pleurotus sajor-caju) Recipes of mushroom
19. Biological Nitrogen Fixation ... 442-462
Non-Symbiotic N2 fixation. Diazotrophy; Ecology of diazotrophs; Special features of diazotrophs; Sites of N2 fixation; Nitrogenase and reductants; Presence of hydrogenase; Self regulatory systems, Mechanism of N2 fixation; Symbiotic N2 fixation. Establishment of symbiosis; Host specificity and root hair curling-lectin-mediated root hair binding; Infection of root hairs; Nodule development; Factors affecting nodule development; Mechanism of N2 fixation in root nodules-importance of leghaemoglobin, how does nitrogenase works. Energy and oxygen relation in symbiotic association; Genetics of diazotrophs. Nod genes; Nil genes; Nif genes cloning; Hup genes, Nodulin genes.
20. Biofertilizers (Microbial Inoculants) ... 463-488
Bacterial inoculants; Rhizobial inoculants - Isolation of Rhizobium, identification of Rhizobium (CRYEMA test, microscopic observation, glucose-pentose agar test, salt tolerance test, lactose test, nodulation test in Leonard jar assembly), starter culture of Rhizobium, mass culture of Rhizobium, mass cultivation of Rhizobium measuring cell counts in broth, preparation or carrier-based inoculum and curing, packaging and storage, quality control of Rhizobial inoculants, methods of seed inoculation, pelleting; Azotobacter inoculants - characterization of Azotobacter, isolation of Azotobacter; mass production of Azotobacter inoculants, application of batter Azotobacter inoculants in field (foliar application, seed treatment, seeding treatment, pouring of slurry, top dressing) crop response after field application; Azospirillum inoculants; isolaation of Azospirillum, characterization of Azospirtlum strain, mass cultivation of Azospirilitim inoculants, preparation of carrier-based inoculants, application of Azotobacter in field seed treatment, Seedling treatment, top dressing crop response; Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (PMS), Phosphate biofertilizer; isolation of PMS, mass production or PSM; production of carrier-based inoculants, crap response against PSM; Blue green algae; green manuring; Cyanobactirial inoculants; Algalization - isolation of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) preperation of starter culture, mass cultivation a cyanobacterial biofertilizer, field application of BGA inoculants, crop response; Azolla and biofertilizer; Mass cultivation of Azolla. Frankia-induced nodulation; isolation of Frankia; culture characteristics; infection of host cells, benefits of Frankia inculation; Mycorrhizae as biofertilizer; MycoRhiz, Mycobeads; Benefits from biofertilizers; Producers of bioletilizers, Works done on biofertilizer in India availability of quality inoculants, organisation of training programmes, quality control, organisation of field demonstration and farmers fair, mass publicity; distribution of mother culture; R&D activities.
21. Biopesticides (Biological Control of Plant Pathogens, Pests and Weeds) ... 489-509
Biological control of plant pathogens; Inoculation; Historical background; Phyllosphere-phylloplane and rhizosphere-rhizoplane regions; Antagonism; Amensalism (antibiosis and IVSIS), Competition; Predation and parasitism; Mytoparasitism, nematophagy and mycophagy. Application of biological control; Crop rotation; Irrigation; Alteration of soil pH; Organic amendments; Soil treatment with selected chemicals; Introduction of antagonists; Seed inoculation, vegitative part inoculation and soil inoculation; use of mycorrhizal fungi; Genetic engineering of biocontrol agents. Biological control of insect pests; Microbial pesticidies; Bacterial, viral and fungal pesticides; Biological control of weeds. Mycoherbicides; Insects as biocontrol agents.
22. Enzyme Biotechnology ... 510-529
Microorganisms; Properties of enzymes; Presence of species specificity; Variation in activity and stability, Substrate specificity; Activation and inhibition. Methods of enzyme production; Isolation of microorganisms, strain development and preparation of inoculum; Medium formulation and preparation; Sterilization and inoculation of medium, maintenance of culture and fluid filtration; Purification of enzymes; Immobilization of enzymes Advantages of using immobilized enzymes; Methods of enzyme immobilization; Adsorption; Entrapping; Ionic bonding; Cross linking; Encapsulation; Effects of enzyme immobilization on enzyme stability, Enzyme engineering; Application of enzymes Therapeutic uses; Analytical uses; Manipulative uses; Industrial uses; Biosensor, Biochips.
23. Biomass : A Renewable Source of Energy ... 533-549
Energy sources: A general account: Nuclear energy; Fossil fuel energy; Non-fossil and non-nuclear energy; Biomass as source of energy. Composition of biomass (Cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin Terrestrial biomass, Aquatic biomass Salvinia; Water hyacinth; Wastes as renewable source of energy: Composition or wastes; Sources of wastes (Industries, agriculture, forestry, municipal sources); Biomass conversion. Non-biological process: Direct combustion-hog fuel; Pyrolysis; Gasification: Liquefaction, Biological process: Enzymatic digestion Anaerobic digestion, Aerobic digestion.
24. Biomass Energy (Bio-energy) ... 550-568
Energy plantations; Social forestry: Silviculture energy farms short rotation forestry): Advantages of short rotation management, Petroleum plants (Petroplants). Hydrocarbon from higher Plants Hevea Rubber; Euphorbia: Guayule and Russian dandalion; Aak, Algal hydrocarbons. Alcohols : The liquid fuel. General account; Ethanol production; Fermentable substrate, Hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials: Effect of substrate composition on hydrolysis; Fermentation; Recovery of ethanol; Gaseous fuels: Biogas and hydrogen. What is biogas, Biogas technology in India; Benefits from biogas plants: Feed stock materials; Biogas production; anaerobic digestion; Solubilization; Acidogenesis; Methanogenesis-methanogens, mechanism of methane production; Biogas production from different feed stocks, Salvinia; Water hyacinth; Municipal wastes: Factors affecting methane formation. Hydrogen: A new fuel. Photobiological process of H2 production: Hydrogenase and H2 production: Halobacteria.
25. Environmental Biotechnology ... 569-598
Bioremediation; in situ bioremediation; Intrinsic bioremediation Engineered in situ bioremediation; Ex situ bioremediation; Solid phase system composting, composting process); Slurry phase system (aerated laggons, low shear airlift reactor); Factors affecting slurry phase bioremediation; Bioremediation of hydrocarbon; Use of mixture of bacteria; le of genetically engineered bacterial strains; Bioremediation of dyes; Bioremediation in paper and pulp industry (role of microorganisms, cultivation strategies) - the Mycor process, continuous flow system fungal pellets, immobilised culture, bioremediation of heavy metals (metal-microbe interaction and mechanism of metal removal, biosorption, organisms involved in biosorption, factors affecting biosorption of metals, metal biosorption technology); Bioremediation of coal waste through VAM fungi; Bioremediation of xenobiotics; Microbial degradation of Xenobiolics; Gene manipulation of pesticide-degrading microorganisms bioaugmentation, principles of bioaugmentation, use of enzymes; biofiltration, biofilters, microorganisms used in biofilter; biofilter media, mechanism of biofiltration; Utilization of sewage and agro-wastes; Production of single cell protein; Biogas from sewage; Mushroom production on agro-wastes; Vermicomposting - Process of vermicomposting; Microbial leaching (bioleaching); Microorganisms used in leaching; Chemistry of leaching; Direct leaching; Indirect leaching; Leaching process (slope leaching, heap leaching; in situ leaching), Examples et bioleaching; Copper leaching; Uranium leaching; Gold leaching, Silica leaching; Hazards of environmental engineering; Survival of released GMMs in the environment; Adaptive mutagenesis in GMMs; Gene transfer from GMMs into other microorganisms, Gene transfer via conjugative transposons; Effect of evironmental factors on gene transfer; Ecological impact of GMMs released into the environment; Growth inhibition of natural strains; Growth stimulation of indigenous strains; Replacement of natural strains; Monitoring of GEMs in the environment, Risk assessment of the GEMs released into the environment.
26. Biotechnology and Biosafety, Intellectual Property Right (IPR) and Protection (IPP) ... 601-614
Biosafety; Topic of concerns on website ICGEB; Hazards of environmental engineering, Biosafety guidelines and regulations; Operation of biosafety guidelines and regulations. What intellectual property right (IPR) and protection (IPP); Forms of protection; Patents (reading patent - description, claims, patenting strategies); Copyrights : Trade secrets, Trademarks, Plant variety protection: The world intellectual property organisation (WIPO), General agreement of tariffs and trade (GATT) and trade related IPRs (TRIPs): Patent status - Paris convention, UPOV, Strasbourg Convention, patent cooperation treaty (PCT), European patent convention (EPO), Budapest Treaty OECD, Patenting of biological materials, product patents - importance to inventors; Conditions for patenting; Patenting of liveforms; Sinificance of patents in India; Benefits of joining; Parts Convention and PCT, some cases of patenting.
27. Experiments on Biotechnology ... 617-653
Basic research, how to record results, safety rules in biotechnology laboratory, tools in biotechnology laboratory,
Experiment 1. Sterilization techniques
Experiment 2. Media preparation
Experiment 3. Isolation and characterization of bacteria
Experiment 4. Bacterial growth kinetics
Experiment 5. Cell viability assay
Experiment 6. Isolation of genomic DNA
Experiment 7. DNA detection by gel electrophoresis
Experiment 8. DNA estimation
Experiment 9. Isolation of milk protein
Experiment 10. Protein estimation
Experiment 11. Assay of acid phosphatase
Experiment 12. Identification of N-terminal amino acid of protein
Experiment 13. lon exchange chromatography
Experiment 14. SDS-PAGE analysis of protein
Experiment 15. Plasmid isolation
Experiment 16. Restriction digestion of DNA
Experiment 17. Transformation in bacteria
Experiment 18. DNA sequencing
Experiment 19. Protoplast preparation and fusion
Glossary ... 655-670
References ... 671-690
Index ... 691-702